Women in STEM – Celebrating Women’s History Month

Yesterday it was announced that mathematician Karen Uhlenbeck . from the University of Texas at Austin, had been awarded the Abel Prize 2019 “for her pioneering achievements in geometric partial differential equations, gauge theory and integrable systems, and for the fundamental impact of her work on analysis, geometry and mathematical physics.” Impressive in itself, but more impressive because she is the first woman ever to be awarded the prize (The Abel Prize was established on 1 January 2002. The purpose is to award the Abel Prize for outstanding scientific work in the field of mathematics. The prize amount is 6 million NOK (about 750,000 Euro) and was awarded for the first time on 3 June 2003).  A fitting tribute and accomplishment during this month, which happens to be Women’s History Month, which celebrates women’s’ contributions to society and history.

Seems only appropriate to dedicate this post to other significant women and their contributions to STEM, especially as there is still such a need for more women in the STEM fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The more young girls and women see what others have done, the more they are inspired to pursue futures in these fields. I’ve done a little research and pulled together a few names to share in this post. By no means is this an exhaustive list, rather a list of women that sparked my interest, particularly in mathematics, since this has been my personal passion for most of my life. There are many more out there, but the idea of celebrating Women’s History Month is to realize how important, and often unknown/hidden, women have been in many of our STEM advances and historical events.

  1. Marie Curie the only woman to have received TWO Nobel Prizes (one for Physics and one for Chemistry).
  2. Gertrude B. Elion another Nobel Prize winner in Physiology, whose work contributed to many new drugs, including AZT, the aides drug
  3. Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace – credited with being the first computer programmer!!  Very cool.
  4. Barbara McClintock – Nobel Prize winner in Physiology, credited with showing that genes turn certain physical attributes on and off.
  5. Rachel Carson – credited with creating the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) as a result of her writings and work.
  6. Radia Perlman – commonly referred to as ‘the Mother of the Internet” for her algorithm (STP) that basically allows the Ethernet to handle massive networks
  7. Rear Admiral Grace Hopper – credited with creating the programming language C.O.B.A.L
  8. Lisa Meitner – part of the duo that discovered nuclear fission (fascinating history here about her being ignored in the awarding of the Nobel Prize)
  9. Katherine Johnson – her mathematical computations influenced every major NASA space project – wow!! (See the movie Hidden Figures)
  10. Florence Nightingale – helped pioneer the field of applied statistics and created a version of a pie chart called the ‘coxcomb‘. Totally new information for me!!

I could go on and on – it is amazing once you start looking, how many women have been pioneers, ‘firsts’, and influencers/contributors to math, science, engineering and technology. It’s exciting that so many are finally being recognized. Inspirational. There are lots of interesting articles and synopses out there that can spark student interest and maybe inspire some of our youth as well. Maybe spend some of this Women’s History Month exploring with your students or just on your own. I know I have been really surprised and amazed and plan to keep researching.

Math Hardware versus software – Similarities & Differences with Casio

Students using technology as part of learning math is important because of the extension of learning that is possible, the visual connections, and explorations that become possible as a result of technology. The most common technology students use these days are their phones, tablets, computers, and of course, hand-held devices such as calculators. It all depends where you live, what schools you attend, what’s allowed or not allowed, and also what resources are actually available and understood by both teachers and students. From my own research, some schools/teachers have a multitude of resources, but most schools have limited options. And – even if there are many technology tools available, teachers tend to utilize the tool (s) they are most comfortable with, and that the majority of students have access to. Basically, it comes down to choosing a technology that is going to support the learning and that students and teachers can use relatively efficiently, so that time is not lost to ‘tool logistics’. Often times, again, based on my own research (dissertation), teachers choose tools that may NOT be the best choice for learning because they know how to use it over a much better, more appropriate tool, that they are unfamiliar with or uncomfortable with, so many times better technology tools go unused because of the ‘learning curve’.

What I wanted to use this post for today was to show how Casio has really recognized the ‘learning curve’ issue and tried to keep functionality consistent across handheld models and even in their software, providing intuitive steps and menu options right within the graphing menu itself that alleviate some of that ‘learning new tool functionality’ concerns that teachers and students often face when using technology. Our graphing calculators basically use the same steps, buttons, layout, even from the very basic ones (fx9750) (fx9860), to the more advanced ones (CG50), so if you know one, you know them all. And, even the new software, ClassPad.net, is built along the same lines, though obviously with more features and capabilities.  But there is no ‘searching for menus’ – relatively intuitive no matter the tool. Obviously, as you get into the newer models and then into the software, the functionality and options increase – we go from black-and-white displays to color, we go from intersection points on the graphing calculators to union/intersections on the software. But knowing how to use one tool makes transitioning easy, and if you had students with several different models of the handhelds, you could still be talking about the same steps and keystrokes.

The best way to compare and demo is to show you how to do the same thing on the different models. I’ve chosen to show graphing two inequalities, so that you can see, even on the older models, that shading and intersections occur. But also to show that as you progress into the newer and more powerful tools (i.e. memory capacity, color, larger screens, resolution, etc), allowing for more options and learning extensions.

Here are the two inequalities that are being graphed in each of these short GIF’s:

Each GIF below graphs the two inequalities and finds intersection points of the two graphs. The software extends that to allow for finding the Union and the Intersection of all points.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Be sure to check out the free software that does calculating, graphing, statistics and geometry: ClassPad.net.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Year’s Resolutions – A Chance to Explore Some Statistics

As I was at the gym this morning, noticing the increase in people that were there, I got to thinking about New Year’s Resolutions. I personally dread the month of January at the gym because inevitably, it is a lot more crowded with all the ‘new memberships’ given as gifts over the holidays, and full of new people who have decided losing weight and getting in shape are on their to-do list for this new year. As someone who hits the gym regularly, this month at the beginning of the year is a bit frustrating because machines are taken, the parking lot is crowded, and my regular routine is often interrupted due to the increase in the number of people. I admire everyone’s new-found commitment and applaud the goal of getting in shape and being healthier – however, my anecdotal evidence over the past several years is that this commitment is short-lived for many.  By February, things tend to get back to normal because, sadly, many of our ‘new years resolution’ folks lose the commitment and stop showing up, allowing the rest of us to get back to our routines.

Which brings me back to my thoughts about New Year’s Resolutions (NYR).

From my own very unscientific observations at the gym, those that made NYR to get in shape, lose weight, etc. usually last about a month – and this is based solely on the increase in people during January, and then the slow decrease in people as the month progresses, to the return to the regular crowd by February (with, granted, a few new ‘regulars’ who stick it out). I wondered, as I was cycling, are there any statistics out there that actually show the follow-through on New Year’s Resolutions – i.e. what were the resolutions made at the beginning of the year, and what was the actual end result at the end of the year?

I was able to find statistics on the most popular NYR made last year (2018)  However, I couldn’t find any follow-up statistics to see how many people in the survey actually stuck to their resolutions, which is what I think would be interesting to explore.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I then found another source that listed the 10 most popular NYR’s made for this year (2019).  A lot of the same resolutions, though maybe different priority. Some different ones as well, which could be a factor of many things – i.e. the economy, the political climate, the source of the survey, who was surveyed, etc.

I am curious why there is no follow-up from those that conducted the surveys at the end of the year. It would be fascinating to see what the graphs look like at the end of the year compared to the beginning and why or why not some people dropped off their NYR and some stayed true.  I couldn’t find any ‘proof’ for claims such as “80% of all NYR’s fail by February“, though again, going back to my personal observations, I would agree with this claim. There are definitely a lot of articles about how to ‘keep’ your resolutions, and plenty on why people don’t stick to their resolutions, but no statistics that actually support this claim that I could find. But it would be nice to have some data or evidence that supports observations – which leads me to my final thought on a fun ‘real world’ statistical study that teachers might explore with their students for the remainder of this school year.

During this short week, where school has started up again but students tend to still be in vacation-mode, why not start a long-term study to see if we can get some statistical data about NYR’s? Have students in your class make a list of 3 NYR’s – so some goals they really plan/want to accomplish by the end of the school year. Better yet, pick a specific month and/or date (so May 30 for example). Then, compile the class data to create categories and percentages, similar to the charts above. (My guess is students will have some different things on their top 10 list, which would be interesting in itself). Have students keep a record of their progress towards their goals, and maybe on a monthly basis, do a quick survey on students progress/commitment to their NYR’s.  Then at the proposed deadline, do another survey on the success/failure to see who is still working on their goals and who is not. Obviously it is going to be self-reporting, but it would be interesting, as time goes on, to see who is staying committed, who is not, and more importantly, WHY they are not staying committed if that is the case. Do the class results verify that 80% drop off by February? Is there a common theme for those that do not follow-through on their NYR’s?

I wanted to share this as an idea for teachers who might have made their own NYR to be more creative in their math class. The only NYR I ever made each year was to try at least one new thing in my math classes every month – for me a pretty easy resolution to stick to. I would imagine many teachers do something similar. For those of you who have made NYR, good luck and Happy New Year!

 

ClassPad.net – My Math Love-Affair Continues….

I am a lucky woman.

For my almost 30 years in education, I have loved what I do. Teaching math, helping others teach math, finding amazing tools and resources that make learning math engaging and exciting – my ‘work’ is a labor of love. My love-affair with mathematics and teaching has been influenced by many experiences and people and has led me to yet a another new adventure in my quest to help others love and appreciate the beauty of mathematics – Classpad.net,  a free, web-based software that I have been directly involved in, from conception, to development, and now, to public release and hopefully, viral usage!

Some of my Key family

It’s been a weird path of growth, with connections leading to new opportunities, and more connections, and more opportunities. As a new teacher, and also working on my masters at VCU in VA, I worked under John Van De Walle, who started me on the path of making mathematics hands-on and visual and based on problem-solving. This quest led me to look for resources and share my love of math at conferences – sparking my professional development/training itch.

DG5 Groupies!

My search for visualization and hands-on resources led me to a closet in our math department, where I found Discovering Geometry and Sketchpad. And as I used these resources to present at conferences, I got to know and LOVE Key Curriculum and become, I admit, a groupie. This led to getting to know the Key sales folks and being asked to become a Key consultant. All this PD experience led to an administrator job, where, miracle of miracle, all the Discovery books from Key were just being adopted, so I was part of this implementation, which led to meeting Key’s PD trainer, Tim Pope. As a result – lo and behold, this groupie is working for Key!

It was a dream come true! The Key family, one full of former math educators all trying to share the love of mathematics and create inquiry-based, engaging math through great problem-solving and dynamic math technology tools, was amazing. Then – the dream burst, the family split up, and the books went to Kendall Hunt (with Tim), and the technology to MHE (with me).

Heartbreak.

Casio Family

Time to open a new door: I decided to finish my doctorate and branch into the unknown world of education consulting. And that Key family? They are still there – sending connections and opportunities, which is why I now teach at Drexel, work with Casio, travel the world for The Dana Center and Department of Defense Education Activities, among many other experiences.

At this moment in time, my worlds have collided. My Casio family, which is a group of math educators trying to share the love of math and teaching and learning math through dynamic visualization, is inspirational. We’ve worked as a collaborative team, with Casio‘s incredible R&D team in Japan, to create a tool that is going to revolutionize mathematics. It’s everything math teachers want on one page, and it’s just in it’s baby-phase right now with potential for growth that is exciting.

The guys behind booth magic!

Classpad.net has a partnership with Kendall Hunt just recently announced. Those very Discovering Mathematics books I so love will be adding to their power of inquiry by providing our tool as the discovery math tool embedded in the ebooks. My new family is joining with my old family….(and Tim and I are reunited) (and we have a podcast too – 180days Podcast)(shameless plug)!

Right now? It feels like I’ve connected many parts of my life – where many of my previous ‘experiences’ and worlds have joined together. Not sure if this is the circle of life, or a Mobius strip, or maybe an example of a network with many nodes. But whatever it is, it feels right, it feels exciting and it feels limitless.

So, what is Classpad.net?

It is something that makes me proud to be a part of because it is a web-based software, freely available to teachers and students, that encompasses all the things I wished for as a teacher, and it’s all in one place instead of several different tools that don’t communicate with each other. My doctorate dissertation was on edtech, and how teachers have so many technology tools forced upon them (hardware, software, apps, tablets, PC’s, interactive whiteboards, student response systems, etc) and none of them talk to each other, and each require separate training and support. Instead of using any of these tools effectively, teachers use the ones they are comfortable with, and often not the tool that makes the most sense for helping students learn. Or worse, no tools at all.

Classpad.net solves that problem by being a tool where you never have to leave the page – you can do geometry on the same page you are doing statistics. You can add a calculation, you can make a graph – all from one place. You can dynamically show mathematics and students can explore math and make their own discoveries on a table or a laptop or a phone – with the touch of a finger. There is a complete CAS (computer algebra system) engine behind this software, so it’s capabilities and functionality are incredibly robust. We are just in the ‘beta’ stage of release, which is even more exciting because we are really seeking input and feedback from users – what’s not working for you? what do you want? And, just like a start-up tech company, our team is responding quickly and changing based on what teachers and students want and need. The possibilities are endless because we have Casio’s 60 years of worldwide technology expertise and the experiences and input of math teachers building something that can be what teachers and students really need, want, and use – all in one place.

We have a Classpad.net Youtube Channel that we are just starting to build out, but here’s a quick overview of Classpad.net

It’s only the beginning – so check it out. But, as someone who has had a long-standing love affair with math and math technology, this is going to be a fun ride with so much more to come!! Join the fun and start creating with math and sharing your love of math as well on Twitter and Facebook!

New Year’s Observations: Supporting Educational Change & Teachers

I read an article the other day in Edweek about a recent study of teachers regarding the many educational reforms/changes they have seen and been asked to implement in the last couple of years. The article, Majority of Teachers Say Reforms Have Been Too Much” by Leana Loewis, reports on results from a survey done by the Edweek Research Center. I won’t repeat all the findings, as you can read the article and look at the results yourself, but the gist is there have been a crazy amount of education reforms teachers have been asked to make, from standards, to pedagogy, to assessment, to evaluation, and, frankly, it’s exhausting and they are getting tired. And often these changes happen all at once with results expected immediately. A quote from the article that says it all: “Teachers are incredible. They keep up with it because they have to.”  But – at some point, somethings gotta give. In large part, what teachers need is time and support, and this made me think back to something I wrote in my personal blog about change and how educational leaders can support these teachers who are struggling with so many reforms. I’d like to share my 3 suggestions for supporting teachers and change/reform as we begin this New Year.

Observation 1: CHANGE IS EMOTIONAL – change is hard NOT because we don’t want to change (often assumed of teachers who resist change), but because there is often a lot of emotion behind the change. Teachers may want to embrace new curriculum, or learn new roles and new skills, however…they may have LOVED what they used do use or do still want to do that – and it’s emotionally wrenching to have that taken away or altered. In a sense, teachers may be mourning for what is gone and nostalgic about how perfect it was (which it most likely wasn’t). There may be an emotional road block to educational reforms…one that can be overcome, but it will definitely take time, support, and understanding from leaders, students, parents and other teachers, as well as commitment on a teachers part to persevere.  So leaders – remember this about your teachers when it comes to implementing new educational reforms- it may be an emotional reason vs. fear of new or different resources/strategies. Try to address the emotion and provide relevance and reasoning for change and time and support.

Observation 2: RESISTANCE/RELUCTANCE TO CHANGE IS MULTIDIMENSIONAL – It’s easy to tell someone that if they learn a new skill or strategy, that things will be fine or be better. But learning that new skill/strategy or knowledge might not be the true road block – it could be that they don’t understand the relevancy to what they do, or they have preconceived notions or beliefs that cause resistance, or they are missing some necessary background experience/knowledge.What matters here is again, time to learn, but more importantly, dissemination of background, relevance, and connection to what they do and how these new or different skills/resources/strategies will make things better. Without a reason, a purpose, a connection, learning the how-to won’t ever change the internal beliefs and therefore never change behavior in a lasting, effective way.

Observation 3: SOME CHANGES MAY NOT BE FOR EVERYONE – it’s hard to accept, but not everyone can, will, or needs to change, whether that be a skill, strategy, or knowledge base.  What is important is to understand this, try to provide all the time, information, and support to push change along, but in the end, accept that some folks are not going to change and be prepared to deal with it. Whether this means encouraging them to find another place that fits their needs and interests, providing alternatives or simply accepting status quo, forcing those who are not ready, willing or able to change does NOT lead to success.

In education, we tend to introduce education changes, with little training and little time and expect miraculous results quickly. Real change, with long-term benefits is not quick – so let’s take this new year to really look at what we are expecting from our education reforms and assessing whether we have provided that time, addressed those emotional needs, provided reasoning and support. If you want success, you have to work at it.

Solar Eclipse 2017 – Resources and Links to View (and Use in Math/Science class….)

I think by now most American’s are aware that there is a full solar eclipse coming on August 21. I have friends traveling to different parts of the country (Wyoming, South Carolina) just so they can see the complete eclipse instead of just a partial. It’s big deal. There has been a lot of talk about how to view the eclipse safely – yes people, you can damage your eyes and/or go blind if you look at the eclipse without some type of protective eye wear unless it is in complete totality (i.e. the sun is completely covered by the moon). If there is even a sliver of sun showing, eye damage is possible, so why risk it? Apparently there is a shortage of eclipse glasses – and regular sun glasses don’t cut it. Later in this post I will provide a way to make a device to see the eclipse without looking directly at it for those of you who did not jump on the eclipse glass ordering craze!

This is a rare occurrence and there are many sites and resources out there to help collect data, track the eclipse, watch it live streamed. I’ve compiled a list of sites and resources that provide lots of options that you can use personally or use with students. Lot of math and science questions and connections that can be made!

  1. Space.Com – lots of links here to where to see the eclipse, how to track it, how to livestream, safety, etc.
  2. State-by-State Map – also Space.Com but the slide show focuses on time and where to see the eclipse by state
  3. NASA.gov Also shows where, when and how, with some great visuals and suggestions for safety
  4. Eclipse2017.org A great resource – click on the different links to prepare, find maps, discussions on what an eclipse is, etc.
  5. Science Space Institute – they have an app that will allow you to explore real-time images of the solar eclipse
  6. Astronomy Magazine – 25 facts about the solar eclipse – (good resource to use with students!)
  7. TimeandDate.com – very cool map that if you click on it (path of eclipse) it will show date, time, location
  8. USA Today – lots of resources here, with an important one – the FAKE eclipse glasses that have gone on the market – beware!
  9. The Washington Post – some fun facts about the sun, moon, eclipse – great for students
  10. Sky & Telescope – lots of links to where, when, education resources all connected to the eclipse
  11. Eclipsophile – interesting facts about each state in the path of totality – great math/science stuff here!

As you can see, there is a plethora of information on the solar eclipse out there to explore, much of which for you teachers out there, can become some really interesting math and science exploration and discussion.

Let’s end with some links to making your own SAFE eclipse viewer, because again, you do NOT want to look directly at the eclipse, especially partial, with the naked eye. Indirect viewing (or watch it livestream via some of the links above). Here are a few different links that show different ways to create your own eclipse viewers, and I have included a video at the end as well.

  1. NASA – using things from around your house (well, only if you have binoculars)
  2. National Geographic – uses stiff pieces of white cardboard. This is designed for use with students.
  3. TimeandDate.com – pinhole box (so need a box, duct tape, scissors, white paper…)
  4. Wikihow.com – this involves carboard and a camera (those of you wanting to take pictures)
  5. USA Today – this involves a cereal box, aluminum foil, scissors, white paper – simplified pinhole box
  6. Exploratorium – this has several methods, and even has the same scientist from the NASA as one option
  7. Youtube – lots of videos on youtube on how to make an eclipse viewer.  I liked this one because it was simple and efficient.

Below is a video on making your own eclipse viewer. I chose this one because it was simple and uses items easily found around the house:

The Access Formula – (Equity, Equality, and Access to Quality Education – Part 2)

In last weeks’ part 1 of this series on equity, equality, and access to quality education, I defined access to quality education as “the ways in which educational institutions and policies ensure—or at least strive to ensure—that students have equal and equitable opportunities to take full advantage of their education. Increasing access generally requires schools to provide additional services or remove any actual or potential barriers that might prevent some students from equitable participation in certain courses or academic programs.” Access then encompasses many aspects of education, from funding, to resources, to programs and services that help ensure that all students are getting an equitable education (what they need to support learning).

Obviously, all school districts and schools strive to provide access to needed services and supports for their students. There are federal laws in place designed to ensure that all students are getting access to equitable education and getting supports they need. The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) is a law that all public schools must adhere to, which ensures that students with disabilities (including learning disabilities) have access to the least restrictive educational setting, have rights to ensure they get the services they need to support their learning, and parents can have a say in the educational decisions made regarding their students. An example of this from my own teaching is having an interpreter in my math classes that signed for the deaf students in my classes, or a student with an IEP (individual education plan) who needed copies of my notes because they had a learning disability that interfered with their ability to take their own notes. There is also Title I Laws and Funding, specifically designed to address low-income and disadvantaged students and ensure that schools that serve these students are getting the funds they need to support achievement, through things like extra academic supports for reading and writing, pre-school and after-school programs, with the goal to improve achievement on state standardized testing. I won’t go into all the details (link provided gives more information), but the idea here is to provide additional academic supports to low-income& disadvantaged students who are struggling academically. There are no federal laws that pertain to gifted students needs, though there are individual states and local schools that provide resources and supports for gifted education, but it varies by state.

As you might surmise, there is definitely an attempt to provide access to equitable education. But what’s the reality?

From my own experiences, access is NOT equitable. I would wager in most school districts, there is a huge disparity between what resources are available and the quality of education received at various schools within the same district and between districts within the same state. I have worked in many urban school districts where one middle school has low-achieving students at computers every day in math class, working on computer programs designed to support their mathematical skill development, and the other middle school down the street barely has enough rulers for the 42 students in the class, with a teacher who just has one computer and projector and a room full of ELL students speaking 5 different languages. Same school district. Not equitable access to resources. Not equitable learning environments or supports.

This is NOT an isolated situation, as I am sure many of you have experienced similar situations personally, whether as an educator or as a parent. Why is there such disparity when there are laws designed to ensure access to equitable resources and education opportunities?

The obvious answer is funding, which is a huge factor in access discrepancies. While everyone thinks funding for schools comes from federal money, federal funding makes up only 8% of public schools funding, so those TitleI funds and IDEA funds only accounting for a very small portion of education funding overall.  92% of funding for public schools comes from the states themselves, from taxes, lottery receipts and other sources, and a large portion from local property taxes. This means two school districts next to each other, one with a lower-economic base and less property tax, and one with a higher-economic base and more property tax, are going to have vastly different educational funding and resources. High-poverty schools spend less per student, and often have a more difficult time keeping quality teachers because of the disparity in available resources and services. It’s a vicious cycle. Many of the problems come from the way states/school districts apportion school funding, using different funding formulas that from the outset are ‘unfair and unequal’:

In a separate report, “Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card,” the Education Law Center answered its own question with a resounding “No.”  Among the findings:

  • Fourteen states, including Texas, Pennsylvania and Illinois, have “regressive” school funding, defined as providing less money to schools with higher concentrations of students from low-income families.
  • In 19 states—including California, Florida, Colorado and Washington—the funding systems are defined as “flat,” meaning they “fail to provide any appreciable increase in funding to address the needs of students in high poverty districts.”
  • Only four states have school-funding systems that earned “fair” ratings: Minnesota, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Delaware. But “these states have a sufficient overall level of funding and provide significantly higher amounts of funding to high poverty school districts,” according to the report. (from https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/06/how-funding-inequalities-push-poor-students-further-behind/395348/)

If we go back to what equitable education means – students should be getting the resources, supports and instruction that supports their individual needs. With the type of funding described above, this is clearly not what is happening (nice graphic here by state showing the difference by state in funding for poor school districts vs. wealthy school districts). Poverty and all that it entails, seems to be a huge factor in the access to equitable quality education. It impacts parental support (hard to be there to help with homework or pay for tutors if you are working two jobs to make ends meet), access to educators and schools support personnel such as school counselors and nurses, access to technology, education supplies (paper, manipulatives, textbooks, calculators, etc.), school safety, and all the myriad of other components that make up quality education.

When thinking about education and how to provide access to the resources every student needs, we need to restructure how states and school districts distribute school funding and resources. Districts need to do a true evaluation of what each school in their district has in terms of education resources (materials, technology, personnel), and most importantly, what they need to support those students in those specific schools. If the two schools down the street from each other in the same school district have math classes in one school of 20, with students at computers, and the other school with math classes of 42 and no computers and not even enough seats or rulers for students, there is clearly a problem. The first step is to really do an inventory of what schools have, what class rooms and sizes look like, what personnel resources are and really identify the glaring discrepancies. You can’t fix something if you don’t even know where it’s broken – once we see the vast difference in access within school districts, then we can take that next step of thinking about ways to reapportion some of those resources in a more equitable way.