Weather and Integers – The Importance of Real World Connections

A lot of my math teacher friends have been posted images from weather reports on FaceBook and Twitter, like this one to the left from @seemathrun, showing the real-world application of integers due to the extreme weather conditions that are happening across the country right now. It really is a perfect opportunity to show a true application of mathematics that students can definitely relate to, especially if they are in those freezing climates. Add in the wind chill, and you have some interesting data and comparisons and a chance to talk about the relevance of math and understanding numbers.  Here’s an image to the left showing wind chill, temperature, and frost bite times someone else shared that could help explain why so many schools are closed, even though there may not be any snow on the ground, (which is usually the reason behind winter closures). I know one of my colleagues and friends, @ClassPadnut, was sharing with me yesterday that with the wind chill, it was -60 where he lives.  Yikes!!!

There is obviously a lot of different math concepts you could explore with students, dependent on grade level and questions asked. I find the wind chill graph the most interesting. Looking at the wind chill chart, the drop in temperature is almost, but not quite, constant, like you would think – i.e. You will note that there is an equation for the calculation of wind chill at the bottom of the image. I was  curious about whether students could find that connection from the data alone -something to challenge students with. How would they graph this data? Could they? Thinking of statistical tables, what would they enter and what statistical plots would be appropriate? If students are in areas where schools actually closed, you could talk about how the data supports the decisions, and what is the ‘cut-off’ temperature/wind speed that might influence the decision? Lots of things to explore.

I found another image that showed the lowest temperatures reported in each state, so you could do a comparison across states. Even Hawaii is cold!!!  Crazy.  Below is the image, which I then used to enter the data in a table in ClassPad.net, and then make two different plots to represent the data – a histogram and a box-plot. You can see from the box plot five-number summary that the median temperature in the U.S. for this day in January is -40.  Wow!!! (And boy, don’t want to be in Alaska at -80!) Again – think of the interesting class discussions about integers, about how these temperatures will impact things such as the orange crops in Florida or the tourism in Hawaii or California. (Here’s a link to the Classpad.net paper that has the image, table, and graphs shown below: https://classpad.net/classpad/papers/share/b61b70a0-0eed-47da-947a-580e1d835f8d.

As you can see, using what is actually happening right now in our country, i.e. REAL world connections of weather (temperature, wind speed, wind chill), is an amazing opportunity to help students see the relevance of integers and statistics and how this data is being used to make important decisions, such as do we close schools? Who should not venture outside? How long before you get frostbite? The visuals help students ‘see’ mathematics in action, and particularly if we focus on the integer aspect, provide a clear connection to integer addition (and subtraction, depending on the questions asked), something many students struggle with.

Whenever possible, we should be trying to connect the math concepts students are learning and using to a real-world application. Here’s a perfect opportunity, no matter the grade level, to have some great class discussions about the impact of weather on our world, about the relevance of integers, and about how statistical information is important to decision making.

 

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New Year’s Resolutions – A Chance to Explore Some Statistics

As I was at the gym this morning, noticing the increase in people that were there, I got to thinking about New Year’s Resolutions. I personally dread the month of January at the gym because inevitably, it is a lot more crowded with all the ‘new memberships’ given as gifts over the holidays, and full of new people who have decided losing weight and getting in shape are on their to-do list for this new year. As someone who hits the gym regularly, this month at the beginning of the year is a bit frustrating because machines are taken, the parking lot is crowded, and my regular routine is often interrupted due to the increase in the number of people. I admire everyone’s new-found commitment and applaud the goal of getting in shape and being healthier – however, my anecdotal evidence over the past several years is that this commitment is short-lived for many.  By February, things tend to get back to normal because, sadly, many of our ‘new years resolution’ folks lose the commitment and stop showing up, allowing the rest of us to get back to our routines.

Which brings me back to my thoughts about New Year’s Resolutions (NYR).

From my own very unscientific observations at the gym, those that made NYR to get in shape, lose weight, etc. usually last about a month – and this is based solely on the increase in people during January, and then the slow decrease in people as the month progresses, to the return to the regular crowd by February (with, granted, a few new ‘regulars’ who stick it out). I wondered, as I was cycling, are there any statistics out there that actually show the follow-through on New Year’s Resolutions – i.e. what were the resolutions made at the beginning of the year, and what was the actual end result at the end of the year?

I was able to find statistics on the most popular NYR made last year (2018)  However, I couldn’t find any follow-up statistics to see how many people in the survey actually stuck to their resolutions, which is what I think would be interesting to explore.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I then found another source that listed the 10 most popular NYR’s made for this year (2019).  A lot of the same resolutions, though maybe different priority. Some different ones as well, which could be a factor of many things – i.e. the economy, the political climate, the source of the survey, who was surveyed, etc.

I am curious why there is no follow-up from those that conducted the surveys at the end of the year. It would be fascinating to see what the graphs look like at the end of the year compared to the beginning and why or why not some people dropped off their NYR and some stayed true.  I couldn’t find any ‘proof’ for claims such as “80% of all NYR’s fail by February“, though again, going back to my personal observations, I would agree with this claim. There are definitely a lot of articles about how to ‘keep’ your resolutions, and plenty on why people don’t stick to their resolutions, but no statistics that actually support this claim that I could find. But it would be nice to have some data or evidence that supports observations – which leads me to my final thought on a fun ‘real world’ statistical study that teachers might explore with their students for the remainder of this school year.

During this short week, where school has started up again but students tend to still be in vacation-mode, why not start a long-term study to see if we can get some statistical data about NYR’s? Have students in your class make a list of 3 NYR’s – so some goals they really plan/want to accomplish by the end of the school year. Better yet, pick a specific month and/or date (so May 30 for example). Then, compile the class data to create categories and percentages, similar to the charts above. (My guess is students will have some different things on their top 10 list, which would be interesting in itself). Have students keep a record of their progress towards their goals, and maybe on a monthly basis, do a quick survey on students progress/commitment to their NYR’s.  Then at the proposed deadline, do another survey on the success/failure to see who is still working on their goals and who is not. Obviously it is going to be self-reporting, but it would be interesting, as time goes on, to see who is staying committed, who is not, and more importantly, WHY they are not staying committed if that is the case. Do the class results verify that 80% drop off by February? Is there a common theme for those that do not follow-through on their NYR’s?

I wanted to share this as an idea for teachers who might have made their own NYR to be more creative in their math class. The only NYR I ever made each year was to try at least one new thing in my math classes every month – for me a pretty easy resolution to stick to. I would imagine many teachers do something similar. For those of you who have made NYR, good luck and Happy New Year!

 

Systems of Equations – Sample Lessons and Resources

For this months lesson feature, I am going to focus on Systems of Equations. I chose this topic because I just did a workshop with Algebra 1 teachers in NJ, and this is where they were in their pacing guide, so I am making an assumption that many algebra teachers might also be focusing on this content as well this time of year. I am using a problem from Fostering Algebraic Thinking with Casio Technology in order to provide a real-world problem-solving experience (and I have the resource), but I have altered the problem so that I can utilize the all-in-one capabilities of Classpad.net (tables, graphs, equations, geometry, text).

The Problem

In 2010, there were approximately 950,000 doctors in the United States, and approximately 350,000 of them were primary care doctors. It was estimated that more than 45,000 new primary care doctors will be needed by 2020, but the number of medical school students entering family practice decreased by more than 25 percent from 2002 to 2007. With laws reforming health care, many more people will be insured in the United States. 

For many reasons, including a growing and aging population, the demand for doctors will likely increase in future years. The number of doctors available is also expected to increase. But, due to the high cost of insurance and the fear of malpractice lawsuits, many have predicted that the increase in the number of practicing doctors will not keep up with the increase in demand for doctors.

The table to the right provides data from a study conducted in the state of Michigan. These data approximate the number of doctors that were or will actually be licensed and practicing in Michigan, called the supply, and the number of doctors that were or will be needed by the people of Michigan, called demand.

The question is, will there be enough doctors to provide all the services? The shortage of doctors is a problem that challenges the entire country, not just Michigan.

The Lesson

A shared paper has been created in ClassPad.net called Systems of Equations Help! Not Enough Doctors, which you can access by clicking on the title. The idea behind this problem is to provide a real-world context where students can use tables, graphs, and equations (along with calculations) to create a system of equations. They can solve these using methods such as substitution, elimination, and graphing. Students will also be practicing how to model with mathematics, applying what they know about relationships and being able to create a system of equations that fits the context of the situation in order to find a reasonable solution.

In the activity, there is obviously some focus first on getting students to really understand the problem and what the numbers represent, and then the idea is to have them look for patterns and relationships as they look for a solution. First in the table, then by looking at a scatter plot of the data, where they again try to determine a solution based on a visual. Continuing to look for trends, they use prior knowledge to recognize linear relationships, create equations that model the data, and then graph those equations to find a more precise solution. Then, as a check, they solve their system of equations algebraically. It’s all about multiple representations and helping students see the connections between all the representations, and depending on whether you want a specific, precise answer or just a generalized answer, you might choose a different representation.

ClassPad.net – Lesson In Action

The video below shows the activity and does a brief walk through of some of the components and what it would be like doing the activity from a student perspective. I am a big believer in the think-pair-share approach, so I would suggest having students do the Notice and Wonder individually first, then pair up, then share so that you can make sure that any misunderstandings about the context, and clarification about the numbers is figured out before students start solving. Then I would suggest small groups for working on the problem itself.

Other System of Equation Activities and/or video links

 

Classpad.net Version 1 – Just In Time for School!

Welcome back to a new ‘school year’ (for some anyway). I’ve been on a bit of a hiatus the last couple months, working hard and doing a bit of travel. But, time to get back to it and what better way to start things off but with the launching of Version 1 of Classpad.net.

I posted about Classpad.net back in May, in my post Classpad.net – My Math Love-Affair Continues, This time I want to actually delve much more into what Classpad.net is and share some activities and images to give you a sense of the power of this web-based software. We’ve been in Beta-mode, where we’ve been fixing bugs, working on functionality improvements, and other things while teachers and students have been playing around with the software. Big shout out to all of you who’ve been giving us feedback – we’ve been updating and making changes and fixing bugs in large part to your input. Today is the launch of Version 1, so no longer in ‘test-mode’. Does that mean it’s done? Absolutely not! The beautiful thing about web-based software is that we are constantly improving and updating and adding features. It’s really in its infancy, with so much more growth and functionality and improvement on the horizon, which makes it even more exciting knowing this is only the beginning.

What is Classpad.net?

Great question. At it’s heart, it’s FREE (yes…forever) web-based, dynamic, math software. We call it ‘digital-scratch-paper’ because you can pretty much do whatever you might do when you pull out a piece of paper – i.e. write some notes, do a calculation, make a graph, create a table, draw a picture, measure something. As we know, there are lots of math software and tools out there – but most have specific purposes (i.e. only do statistics, only graph, only do calculations, etc.), so we end up having to use one tool to make graphs, another tool to create geometry constructs, yet another one to do some statistical analysis. And then, if we want to create an assignment for students, we have to use yet another tool to copy-cut-paste our various tables, graphs, constructs, and directions into a usable document. Classpad.net allows you to do all of that on one ‘paper’, which can then be printed (PDF), or shared (unique URL), or saved.  You can send this to students via URL (email or post on your website), students can make their own copy and do their work and send it back to you. It’s all there on one page – and, the beauty is, you can arrange and rearrange things on that paper as you want. To the right is a snapshot of a ‘paper’ showing all the stickies – i.e. text, calculate, graph, geometry, table/statistical plot. You have unlimited scroll and vertical space, and all objects are moveable – arrange and rearrange to your hearts content. You can title the pages and change the banner color to help sort and group content areas.

What Are The Components of Classpad.net?

You can pretty much do all the mathematics you need with Classpad.net for all K-12 curriculum content areas, including Calculus and AP Stats. There are some features that as of today are behind a ‘paywall” (i.e. nominal fee for the add-on app feature), but these are features that most K-12 teachers would NOT want students to have or necessarily need (re: CAS ability, allowing for solving equations or factoring polynomials, as an example; handwriting recognition, and a few others as we add in functionality).  But, here are the general components of Classpad.net, and with each there is a quick GIF showing some aspect of each component:

TEXT – text is just that – you can pull up a text sticky to write directions (for student homework/tests) or descriptions. You can also type in mathematical expressions/equations/terms in the text. Text stickies can be moved and resized as needed, color changes, and you can set a sticky for students to respond to (or students can add their own text sticky to write in answers and reflections as they work on things.

 

 

 

 

CALCULATE – as you would expect, calculate does calculations and so much more. You can define functions and lists, and use them later in graphs and statistical tables. Due to natural display, you can get exact answers. You can use function notation and shortcuts (see the ? at top right of Classpad.net for the function list). And, as with all the stickies, you can move the calculation stickies wherever you need them to be or pull them up whenever needed – all on the same paper.

 

 

 

GRAPH – again, you can graph anything – equations, defined functions, inequalities, integrals, etc. You can create sliders to move graphs and compare functions. You can find area under the curve, click on the graph to see key points, add moveable points to a function plot, look at the table of values, or plot from a table a values, make moveable lines for lines of fit. Comparing graphs is easy too – you can put graphs together or pull them apart to look at things separately. You can have multiple graphs on your paper – either merged or separate. You can add pictures to your graphs as well.

 

 

 

GEOMETRY – Yep, you can even add geometry to your page. We are still building out the geometry component, but right now you can do what you would expect with a geometry tool – i.e. create geometric constructs and specific constraints (perpendiculars, parallels, etc.), measure (area, length, angles, etc.), transformations including dilation, with features that are also unique (so you can construct conics, you can draw free-hand and then ‘adjust’ shapes and objects to have particular constraints. There’s the ability to create a rotational slider. You can create Hide/Show buttons and functions and expressions, and of course typical things like hide objects and change size, colors, etc. I am excited about geometry because I know it’s only the beginning and there’s so much more we are going to be adding.

 

 

STATISTICS – So much to do already, and still so much more to come with statistics. But, what’s the most fantastic part is you don’t have to go get a ‘statistics’ tool for students to be able to collect data, record it in a table, and then analyze that data. This could mean measures of central tendency, or standard deviation, or making different statistical plots to represent the data. Normal distributions, many types of regressions, box-plots, dot plots, histograms…so much there already and we are adding more in the future. As you would expect, we have a spreadsheet that can do calculations or use pre-defined lists (see calculate). You can then add functions to your statistical plots – so everything is all in one place for students to explore and connect.

 

 

As you can see – there’s so much to do, all one one page and one platform (#one-stop-shopping) and it’s free! It’s designed to be usable on touch-screen devices and mobile-devices as well as laptops and PC’s. The perfect tool as you are preparing for this school year, or are just starting your school year (or maybe you are already in-deep to your school year….it’s never too late). Go explore and give it a try and make sure you are letting your student know about this tool. We are also building out our ready-to-use lessons and our video library of support, as we continue to add and improve functionality, so stay tuned. Check out our social media sites for updates and support and we would LOVE to hear from you – share what you and/or your students are creating!!

Check Us Out and Share Your Papers and Experiences:

  1. Classpad.net Youtube
  2. Twitter (@classpadnet)
  3. Facebook
  4. Our website – subscribe so you can start saving and sharing your work with others! Classpad.net

 

 

 

ClassPad.net – My Math Love-Affair Continues….

I am a lucky woman.

For my almost 30 years in education, I have loved what I do. Teaching math, helping others teach math, finding amazing tools and resources that make learning math engaging and exciting – my ‘work’ is a labor of love. My love-affair with mathematics and teaching has been influenced by many experiences and people and has led me to yet a another new adventure in my quest to help others love and appreciate the beauty of mathematics – Classpad.net,  a free, web-based software that I have been directly involved in, from conception, to development, and now, to public release and hopefully, viral usage!

Some of my Key family

It’s been a weird path of growth, with connections leading to new opportunities, and more connections, and more opportunities. As a new teacher, and also working on my masters at VCU in VA, I worked under John Van De Walle, who started me on the path of making mathematics hands-on and visual and based on problem-solving. This quest led me to look for resources and share my love of math at conferences – sparking my professional development/training itch.

DG5 Groupies!

My search for visualization and hands-on resources led me to a closet in our math department, where I found Discovering Geometry and Sketchpad. And as I used these resources to present at conferences, I got to know and LOVE Key Curriculum and become, I admit, a groupie. This led to getting to know the Key sales folks and being asked to become a Key consultant. All this PD experience led to an administrator job, where, miracle of miracle, all the Discovery books from Key were just being adopted, so I was part of this implementation, which led to meeting Key’s PD trainer, Tim Pope. As a result – lo and behold, this groupie is working for Key!

It was a dream come true! The Key family, one full of former math educators all trying to share the love of mathematics and create inquiry-based, engaging math through great problem-solving and dynamic math technology tools, was amazing. Then – the dream burst, the family split up, and the books went to Kendall Hunt (with Tim), and the technology to MHE (with me).

Heartbreak.

Casio Family

Time to open a new door: I decided to finish my doctorate and branch into the unknown world of education consulting. And that Key family? They are still there – sending connections and opportunities, which is why I now teach at Drexel, work with Casio, travel the world for The Dana Center and Department of Defense Education Activities, among many other experiences.

At this moment in time, my worlds have collided. My Casio family, which is a group of math educators trying to share the love of math and teaching and learning math through dynamic visualization, is inspirational. We’ve worked as a collaborative team, with Casio‘s incredible R&D team in Japan, to create a tool that is going to revolutionize mathematics. It’s everything math teachers want on one page, and it’s just in it’s baby-phase right now with potential for growth that is exciting.

The guys behind booth magic!

Classpad.net has a partnership with Kendall Hunt just recently announced. Those very Discovering Mathematics books I so love will be adding to their power of inquiry by providing our tool as the discovery math tool embedded in the ebooks. My new family is joining with my old family….(and Tim and I are reunited) (and we have a podcast too – 180days Podcast)(shameless plug)!

Right now? It feels like I’ve connected many parts of my life – where many of my previous ‘experiences’ and worlds have joined together. Not sure if this is the circle of life, or a Mobius strip, or maybe an example of a network with many nodes. But whatever it is, it feels right, it feels exciting and it feels limitless.

So, what is Classpad.net?

It is something that makes me proud to be a part of because it is a web-based software, freely available to teachers and students, that encompasses all the things I wished for as a teacher, and it’s all in one place instead of several different tools that don’t communicate with each other. My doctorate dissertation was on edtech, and how teachers have so many technology tools forced upon them (hardware, software, apps, tablets, PC’s, interactive whiteboards, student response systems, etc) and none of them talk to each other, and each require separate training and support. Instead of using any of these tools effectively, teachers use the ones they are comfortable with, and often not the tool that makes the most sense for helping students learn. Or worse, no tools at all.

Classpad.net solves that problem by being a tool where you never have to leave the page – you can do geometry on the same page you are doing statistics. You can add a calculation, you can make a graph – all from one place. You can dynamically show mathematics and students can explore math and make their own discoveries on a table or a laptop or a phone – with the touch of a finger. There is a complete CAS (computer algebra system) engine behind this software, so it’s capabilities and functionality are incredibly robust. We are just in the ‘beta’ stage of release, which is even more exciting because we are really seeking input and feedback from users – what’s not working for you? what do you want? And, just like a start-up tech company, our team is responding quickly and changing based on what teachers and students want and need. The possibilities are endless because we have Casio’s 60 years of worldwide technology expertise and the experiences and input of math teachers building something that can be what teachers and students really need, want, and use – all in one place.

We have a Classpad.net Youtube Channel that we are just starting to build out, but here’s a quick overview of Classpad.net

It’s only the beginning – so check it out. But, as someone who has had a long-standing love affair with math and math technology, this is going to be a fun ride with so much more to come!! Join the fun and start creating with math and sharing your love of math as well on Twitter and Facebook!

The Numbers Behind Fireworks – Math Could Save A Finger or Two

I certainly hope everyone enjoyed their 4th of July celebrations. I know I had a lovely time at the beach with my husband and friends. And, as we were at the shore, naturally we, along with hundreds of our ‘closest’ beach-going celebrants, headed down to the oceanfront with our chairs to enjoy a multitude of firework displays put on by five different beach cities. It was actually really nice because you can see all these shows, with some closer than others depending on where you are, and they are timed so you can see the end of one as another is beginning – about an hours worth of city-sponsored fireworks. At one point in time, I saw our cities show and in the background, with 3 other shows at varying distances away (due to the curve of the shore). I did try to capture it on film, but it was night – with a phone – so not the best of pictures!

While we were waiting, again with hundreds of others on the beach for a good many miles, there were those folks who brought along their own fireworks – sparklers for the children, high-grade fireworks firing off – all in all, very impressive and very scary. Especially as the bangs went off, and the ones on the ground smoked away with children running all around – and then there was the falling ‘sparks’ and debris from those larger ones set off by the water landing on folks all around (setting off some screams). The city firework displays are all set off on barges out on the water, done by professionals. Not so much the ones being set off on the shore – right around hundreds of people. While it was all good and fun, and everyone was celebrating the birth of our nation, it was actually a little frightening as well – considering how many of the ‘fireworks’ almost exploded right by us or went towards the houses instead of out to the water….

Naturally, as is my way, I felt the need to look up some numbers. The National Fire Protection Agency has research numbers specific to fireworks. And it’s kind of frightening really. Perhaps the most frightening one is the sparklers, which all the children were running around with and what I believe most people feel are fairly harmless. This little temperature graph might make you feel a bit differently. We are afraid to let children near pots of boiling water or get too close to a fire, yet we let them run around with sparklers in their hands that are burning at 1200 degrees, almost 6 times hotter than boiling water.  WOW!  That’s an eye opener.  And, as a result, according to the NFPA, sparklers account for more than 1/4 of emergency room fireworks injuries – and who is it that is usually walking around with those sparklers – young children. Just to frighten you a little more with the numbers, the circle graph to the right shows the types of injuries that occur – notice, hand & fingers have the highest chance of injuries, with head and eyes tied for second. Again – think of those kids running around with the sparklers……

If we explore the data a little more, we find some interesting statistics:

So – makes sense, if we look at the graph on the right and the graph in the middle, that because sparkler related injuries are the most prevalent, that kids 5-9 have the highest risk for injury since they tend to be the ones running around with those sparklers. But notice in the circle graph to the left that ages 25-44 actually had more reported injuries, which, based on my own experiences and observations, also makes sense when you look at the type of fireworks that are causing the injuries (graph to the right) after sparklers – illegal firecrackers, small firecrackers, those with re-loadable shells. In other words, this is what ‘the dads’ are doing or the ‘adults’ or, as evidenced last night, the large group of college-age kids. They are the ones setting off the big, scary fireworks on the beach – and getting injured more.

Obviously, not many people think about statistics when planning for some fun on the 4th of July (or New Years or other firework-worthy celebrations). It’s about the fun. But – my guess, especially with parents of younger kids who don’t see the harm of those little sparklers – if you showed them some statistics, especially that temperature graph with sparklers at the top, there might be some reconsidering of the ‘playing with fireworks’ mentality. Math could save a couple of fingers…..

Global Warming? Let’s Look at Some Data

I realize that I am most likely among the minority of folks when I say I miss snow. I have lived in the Philadelphia area going on 3 1/2 years now, and this ‘winter’ has to be one of the most disappointing ones so far.  I think we’ve seen maybe 3 days of snow – less than 3 inches, and all gone in a couple hours.  I haven’t even had to shovel or scrape the car but one time…. There has been a lot of rain. It’s raining today, and suppose to get to 60. Yep – sounds like spring to me, NOT winter! Where’s my snow? Where’s the sledding?

I grew up in Virginia and spent most of my life in Virginia, where we got a lot of snow – I remember some pretty amazing snow storms and tobogganing down the driveway with my brothers and sister. I then moved to Houston, TX for five years back in 2008 and basically lost any hope of seeing snow or even seasons. There is no real winter….no real spring…definitely no change of seasons in Houston, though it is definitely as hot as people say. When we moved back east to the Philly area 3 1/2 years ago, I was so excited to experience a fall again, and my first winter here we had so much snow, we were actually tunneling our way out.  It was great! Sledding at the castle, power outages forcing us to hunker down at the local bars – snowstorms were fun – even the shoveling brought out the neighborhood and a lot of goodwill!

 

The lack of snow this year, and the weird warm temperatures this winter, where it has felt more like spring than winter, has me thinking about whether this is a normal pattern for the area or is it ‘global warming'(which according to our illustrious leader is a hoax), or is it something else? I think it would be an interesting and relevant real-world investigation for students to look at and analyze and make some conclusions and even some predictions, no matter where they live. My guess is lots of you are experiencing some weird weather patterns this ‘winter’ – i.e. Utah & California for example.  I know the kids around here are disappointed there have been no snow days, so they’d probably love the chance to study the numbers and see if this is an expected pattern and hopefully find a chance of snow still exists.

No matter where you live, weather patterns are a great way to analyze data and apply mathematical concepts. Most countries, states, cities and town keep a historical record of weather data – by year, by month, by day.  There are lots of different measures taken into account – temperature (lows & highs), precipitation (rain and snow), barometer pressure, wind, etc. This data is relatively easy to find as well just by doing a simple internet search. Many sites provide customization, where you can specify month, year and other data that you are interested in looking at. I did a relatively simple search for Philadelphia historical data, and compared the month of January from 2013 to 2017 – here are the numbers:

Granted, a little hard to see, but just in a quick glance, students might note that this past January 2017 we had about 5.59 inches of snow fall compared to 19.41 inches in 2016 (all in one day?!!), 3.9 in 2015, 25.86 in 2014, and 3.75 in 2013. Based on this, maybe it’s every other year that we get a lot of snow? Maybe this has nothing to do with global warming? Is there enough data to make these conclusions? Should we be looking at more months or more years? What about the average high or the average lows for each month? Does that make a difference? There are so many interesting questions and comparisons that students could explore with weather data. As a teacher, you could be applying a lot of things like ratio, proportion, measures of central tendency, different types graphical displays, fractions, decimals, algebra.  It’s a font of real-world data that could be used in so many different ways and in so many different math courses. And students would be interested, especially if you are using data from where they live.  Maybe compare the data to other similar cities or other very dissimilar cities. Do a cross-curriculum investigation – i.e. science, language arts, history.

Depending where you live, you can use weather to help students relate mathematics to their own world and explore their environment while doing math. In CA, as an example, you’ve received a tremendous amount of rain this winter – is it enough to end the drought? How long would that take and how much rain? Interesting and relevant questions students would love to investigate. In Utah, how has all the snow impacted the skiing and tourist dollars coming into the state? In Louisiana, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida – how common are tornadoes in ‘winter’?

Lot’s of questions. Lot’s of data out there ready to explore.

One last question – will there be a big snow storm in the Philly area in the next few weeks? I hope the answer is yes…I need a snow day!